Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Reducing Errors by Improving Pain Medication Knowledge Thesis Proposal

Lessening Errors by Improving Pain Medication Knowledge - Thesis Proposal Example Thusly, it is important for the post-sedation care unit medical caretaker to be comfortable with these meds with the end goal that prescription mistakes or overdoses might be maintained a strategic distance from. So as to set up a medical caretaker to be satisfactory in the PACU, legitimate system ought to be surveyed with respects to these drugs with the goal that the person is solid and steady to confront difficulties in torment the board, which include: having the option to deal with the control of agony with dilaudid also, fentanyl, having the option to ease depression or other mental difficulties of the patient; and helping the family to be strong of the patient in the post-sedation care unit. Territory I: The Problem and its Environmental Context The particular issue is that the subject of this examination works in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) at UC Davis Medical Center in Sacramento, California. The Unit has a staff of 60 RN's who are guaranteed medical attendants at levels I, II, and III. Now and again the Unit will get patients that have gotten meds for explicit reasons or they have gotten torment prescriptions for post-medical procedure purposes. Normally, the patients have gotten both fentanyl (a short-acting agony drug) and dilaudid (long-acting) torment prescription. Now and again the anesthesiologist won't report when they gave the last portion of agony prescription. The prescription has been directed from the get-go now and again, or late on account of the patient having been in the working room. Be that as it may, this data is archived on the sedation work sheet. The Unit gets the patient from the working room (OR) in the PACU and the patient may shouting or saying they are in torment. Additionally, now and again they are not breathing very well at all and need incitement, oral...However, this data is reported on the sedation work sheet. The Unit gets the patient from the working room (OR) in the PACU and the patient may shouting or saying they are in torment. Additionally, now and again they are not breathing very well at all and need incitement, oral aviation routes, nasal aviation routes, and Narcan. Medical attendants will in general give a great deal of dilaudid in five-minute augmentations per the sedation orders, not realizing it tops in a single hour. It is hard to figure out where patients are in the narcotic cycle as they might be still calmed from sedation and not the agony prescriptions. Accordingly, the patients may have a lot of dilaudid or fentanyl on board upon appearance to the PACU. Some of the time the best decision is to utilize the fentanyl-which is short-acting and makes some pinnacle memories of 30 minutes and modest quantities of the dilaudid. On the off chance that an attendant gives a patient a lot of either fentanyl or dilaudid, the patient may quit breathing or have inconveniences which is viewed as a prescription mistake or potentially overdose. Overseeing torment drug in the PACU dependent on appraisal is a workmanship. It takes understanding, extraordinary evaluation aptitudes, and knowing one's drugs. Directing an excess of may back the patient's brea thing off and narcan might be should have been given.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Dan Bricklin, Bob Frankston, and the First Spreadsheet

Dan Bricklin, Bob Frankston, and the First Spreadsheet Any item that pays for itself in about fourteen days is a surefire victor. That’s what Dan Bricklin, one of the innovators of the primary PC spreadsheet. VisiCalc was discharged to general society in 1979. It ran on an Apple II PC. Most early microchip PCs had beenâ supported by BASIC and a couple of games, yet VisiCalc presented another level in application programming. It was viewed as a fourth era programming program. Before this,â companies were putting away time and cash making money related projections with physically determined spreadsheets. Changing a solitary number implied recalculating each and every cell on the sheet. VisiCalc permitted them to change any phone and the whole sheet would be naturally recalculated. VisiCalc took 20 hours of work for certain individuals and turned it out quickly and let them become significantly more creative,† Bricklin said. The History of VisiCalc Bricklin and Bob Frankston imagined VisiCalc. Bricklin was reading for his Master of Business Administration degree at Harvard Business School when he got together with Frankston to assist him with composing the programming for his new electronic spreadsheet. The two began their own organization, Software Arts Inc., to build up their item. I dont realize how to answer what it resembled in light of the fact that early Apple machines had scarcely any tools,† Frankston said about programming VisiCalc for the Apple II. â€Å"We simply needed to continue investigating by secluding an issue, taking a gander at memory in the constrained troubleshooting †which was more vulnerable than the DOS DEBUG and had no images †at that point fix and retry and afterward re-program, download and attempt again andâ again...â An Apple II form was prepared by the fall of 1979. The group began composing adaptations for the Tandy TRS-80, the Commodore PET and the Atari 800. By October, VisiCalc was a quick merchant on the racks of PC stores at $100.â In November 1981, Bricklin got the Grace Murray Hopper Award from the Association for Computing Machinery out of appreciation for his advancement. VisiCalc was before long offered to Lotus Development Corporation where it was formed into the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet for the PC by 1983. Bricklin never got a patent for VisiCalc on the grounds that product programs were not qualified for licenses by the Supreme Court until after 1981. Im not rich since I developed VisiCalc,† Bricklin stated, â€Å"but I feel that Ive rolled out an improvement on the planet. That is a fulfillment cash cant buy.â Licenses? Disillusioned? Dont consider it that way, Bob Frankston said. Programming licenses werent achievable at that point so we decided not to chance $10,000.â More on Spreadsheets The DIF group was created in 1980, permitting spreadsheet information to be shared and brought into different projects, for example, word processors. This made spreadsheet information more portable.â SuperCalc was presented in 1980, the main spreadsheet for the famous small scale OS called CP/M. The famous Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet was presented in 1983. Mitch Kapor established Lotus and utilized his past programming involvement in VisiCalc to make 1-2-3.â Exceed expectations and Quattro Pro spreadsheets were presented in 1987, offering an increasingly graphical interface.

United States Constitution Essay Example For Students

US Constitution Essay Federalism was chosen as the most engaging arrangement of government in 1787, fundamentally on account of absence of achievable other options. Alliance had been attempted by the 13 states under the Articles of Confederation, and saw as lacking, in that it didn't give satisfactory cohesiveness between the individual country states. Nonetheless, far reaching faithfulness to state government and personality forestalled the reception of a completely unitary framework. Rather, organizers picked federalism as a moderate choice which could best address the issues of a people craving national solidarity, yet requesting neighborhood portrayal and authority also. Further thought uncovered the numerous advantages of a federalist framework. Federalism gives a noteworthy impediment to absolutism. The different degrees of government and their dispensed capacities give firewalls against the fast spread of fanaticism and radical political transformation. The national government can check such a chan ge as it moves from state to state. Each involves a different element, which can be impacted autonomously of its neighbors. On the other side, if a specific ideological group is removed from the national government, it is still prone to convey support on the state level, forestalling ideological destruction. In this way the limit with regards to oppression is checked regardless of where it begins. Federalism bolsters association without annihilating state character. Issues can be bantered on a state level, before they are tended to on a national scale. Nearby procedures influence the position which state administrators take on a national scale. Not all states or gatherings must be in concession to the national level, and the ends came to by singular states can be contrasted as they relate with the country overall. With federalism, the aftereffects of approaches ordered on a state level can be inspected before being applied on an across the country scale. This permits expresses the c hance to pioneer change and to make strides in wanted ways in front of the rest of the nation. Once more, federalism gives a firewall influence, by restricting the damaging capability of unique enactment. On the off chance that the test goes astray, its negative effect is constrained to the parent state. Fruitful ventures can be promptly assessed and embraced by different states as they see fit. Answers for across the country issues can be tried on the state level before being intended to work for a bigger scope. Federalism likewise splits the legislature up into different degrees of dynamic, giving an assortment of chances to individuals to get included. This structure assists with keeping the administration up close and personal, and inside the grip of the masses. Dynamic investment in an assortment of capacities is empowered by the vicinity of individuals to their neighborhood predicaments. Having the way to change their quick environmental factors enables the overall population. Federalism was the most legitimate choice in 1787, it despite everything fills the needs of a cutting edge world. Generally the framework has been fruitful in protecting what it was intended to defend, albeit some symptoms have emerged en route. None have been too hard to even consider overcoming or if nothing else limit, albeit soon it might be a great opportunity to reexamine a portion of those qualities as they become increasingly conspicuous. In any case, it appears our establishing fathers made an exemplary judgment on what type of framework would best suit the American individuals. Question # 4: How intrigue bunches lead to more noteworthy imbalances among Americans (or The Prostitution of Democracy) The degree of impact ready to be acquired by appointed intrigue bunches through political solid equipping has been a worry since the introduction of our country. Albeit snared with the budgetary food of our present framework, the connections between government agents and resolved affluent constituents should surely go under probably some level of investigation. On the off chance that we permit administrative votes to be purchased by the most noteworthy bidder or the most grounded money related supporter, than do we not altogether rout the targets of popular government? Do we not in truth risk the trustworthiness of our most grounded political feelings? We definitely do. What's more, when we permit such techniques to take perch in our state house, they completely instill themselves in the imperativeness of our framework. Gone unchecked, such practices could without much of a stretch become the destruction of genuine majority rule portrayal, and change our legislature into a vehicle for financial moving and social mistreatment. We can see these propensities show on a developing scale in the job that certain campaigning rehearses play in our framework today. Explicit intrigue bunches for the most part speak to brief level of the populace. Notwithstanding, sinc e such gatherings are centered around explicit issues, they might have the option to concentrate enormous amounts of assets towards the positive goals of their issues. They plan to influence officials by methods for an assortment of strategies, paying little mind to progressively prevalent attitude. Cash, impact, and media are their most noteworthy baits. These baits were for all intents and purposes gave to them (or just never removed) by exactly the same individuals who will be devouring them. However, that is the way this game is played. Increasingly broad intrigue gatherings, frequently more intently attached to the interests of the general masses, regularly have far less assets available to them. This makes for an unequal game plan. The more centered, better sorted out, and all the more profoundly financed groups have more prominent influence for setting expectations, than those which are less barely pointed. They frequently have further associations and are all the more intent ly attached to the political desire of their lawmakers. Premium gatherings with enough cash are completely fit for influencing popular conclusion about delegates through boundless roundabout publicizing and mudslinging. The tinkering of intrigue bunches assumes a critical job in decisions and has prevailing with regards to lessening discretionary rivalry. Any delegate who needs to remain in office would be advised to hear out the cash loaded enactment pushers holding up outside the entryway. On the off chance that he listens close and does what hes advised he can hope to remain within for quite a while. The premiums of lower-pay individuals are not spoken to approach the degree that the more extravagant, better sorted out classes can accomplish. By permitting cash and political associations with assume such an enormous job in campaigning, we fundamentally guarantee that it will keep on being extremely hard for lower classes to drive their issues effectively, or even to increment pro portionate portrayal in either lawmaking body. Obviously that is okay most definitely. They can complete more along these lines. By permitting a framework where administrators are at the money related and persuasive kindness of whoevers paying, we essentially endorse types of pay off and apparently. Dedication can be purchased, or coerced from lawmakers, and in the event that they dont collaborate, they presumably wont be back next term. Hows that for stakes? Do what I state and Ill give you cash for your crusade, in any case Ill burn through ten fold the amount of airing ads that will tear it to shreds. Sound like a deal? The overrepresentation of little divisions of the special few, and the underrepresentation of the less blessed hoards clearly add to, if not exemplify numerous social disparities in America. Enactment is inclined, portrayal is inclined, and distribution is inclined, all in the kindness of the rich and amazing, and by and by to the detriment of poor people and unde reducated. The Federalist and against federalist were two particular ideological groups, which when our country was at its early stages (took care of time 1788-1800), didn't concur with one another on specific issues. One of those issues being whether to make a national bank. To comprehend which gathering is for the bank we should take a gander at their various foundations first. The Federalists party had faith in a huge profoundly unified government, while the Anti-federalists had faith in a little govt. with a constrained force. The translation of the constitution was additionally unique. Federalists put stock in a free translation with identified just as suggested powers. Identified forces meaning explicitly written in the constitution and inferred significance proposed powers. The counter federalist had faith in an exacting translation of the constitution with just listed forces, in this way constraining the administrations powers, in this way giving the states more powers. The principle individuals engaged with this discussion in whether to have a national bank or not were Madison, Jefferson, and Hamilton. Hamilton, who spoke to the federalist, needed the national bank since he felt that the bank would help construct our national credit. Madison, speaking to the counter federalists, had contended that in light of the fact that the constitution didn't explicitly engage Congress to give sanctions of consolidation, it reserved no privilege to do as such. Anyway Hamilton replied back by saying that the constitution enabled the legislature to do anything fundamental and legitimate to complete its appointed capacities. This force Hamilton alluded to was referred to in the constitution as the Elastic Clause(Art. I sec.8 Clause 18). Moreover, the government govt was permitted to coin cash and manage its estimation. Along these lines the feds additionally contended that since the govt. as of now had all these identified force why not make a bank. These contentions expressed by both Hamilton and Madison are a case of severe and free understandings of the constitution. Alexander Hamilton was the man who proposed a monetary arrangement to take care of the national obligation. As the Secretary of Treasure, his activity was to set all together the countries accounts and to put the countries economy on a firm balance. Hamilton said to take care of this obligation the administration needed to give new bonds to cover the old ones. James Madisons issues with this was the administration should pay the first investors and not the new holders. Hamilton likewise purposed th

Friday, August 21, 2020

Introduction to Event Management for Budget - myassignmenthelp

Question: Examine about theIntroduction to Event Management for Budget Preparation. Answer: Spending groundwork for Folk Fest: The accompanying financial plan has been set up for Folk Test and it is spoken to as follows: Points of interest Record Codes Sum per unit (in $) Sum (in $) Incomes: Extra charges R1 45 9,000 Promoting benefits R2 8,500 Government award R3 6,800 Sponsorship R4 7,300 All out incomes R 45 31,600 Cost of income CR 37.50 7,500 Net benefit GR 7.50 24,100 Costs: Variable expenses: Food V1 14 2,800 Alcohol V2 12 2,400 Work V3 7 1,400 All out factor costs V 33 6,600 Fixed expenses: Setting F1 1,500 Accommodation F2 2,000 Printing F3 600 Organization and protection F4 1,200 Promoting F5 1,700 All out fixed expense F 7,000 All out expense CR 13,600 Net benefit NR 10,500 Equal the initial investment point (in units) 583 Equal the initial investment deals 26,250 So as to decide the benefit level and equal the initial investment, the accompanying suspicions have been made: The all out number of visitors for Folk Fest is accepted as 200, as the occasion coordinator has welcomed 250 visitors for the occasion, out of which 200 is required to be shown up. The extra charge per visitor is assessed as $45, as this is the standard rate for such occasion in Canada (Getz Page, 2016). For sorting out this occasion, three kinds of variable expense have been thought of and these incorporate food, alcohol and work. The work pace of $7 every hour is the standard work rate in Canada (Jones, 2014). References: Getz, D., Page, S. J. (2016).Event examinations: Theory, research and arrangement for arranged occasions. Routledge. Jones, M. (2014).Sustainable occasion the executives: A commonsense guide. Routledge.

Greek audience Essay Example for Free

Greek crowd Essay The brains of current theater goers are to some degree sluggish contrasted with their Greek partners, several years prior. Today we go to a play and, best case scenario sulk and follow the story, we stay quiet all through and perhaps the most logical and reproachful of us will have a few contemplations on the screenplay. The Greeks anyway had a compatibility with the play, they observed each move, and got behind each line particularly in catastrophe. The reasons why this happened are as per the following: Modern plays fall into the classification of deception shows. The Audience are imperceptible observers of others lives. The characters are made to look and act persuading, so a lord will be dressed elaborately, a young lady will really be little young lady, and a cattle rustler will wear a Stetson and colt 45. The crowd have everything compensated for them thus they think that its simple to fall into the dream and simply watch. Greek Theater is customary dramatization, the characters are regularly not in ensemble and images just demonstrate who was who in the play. For instance a lord may wear a straightforward crown on his head. In Greek dramatization all the on-screen characters wore covers. Every one of these components made it requesting on a Greek crowd to follow the play before them. In actuality they are compelled to observe cautiously and a compatibility is created between the crowd and the play. This crowd got exceptionally vocal during a presentation, which is all piece of the affinity. Today we go to a theater and possibly watch a play, which we have never observed, Greek plays were all notable stories, and the subjects and issues were notable to the crowd. The absence of an unexpected component implies the crowd watches the play with a basic eye perceiving how well the play was done, and furthermore whether writer has embedded a good or policy centered issue. This is delineated in The Aeneid, Virgil makes Aeneas a precursor to the Roman race. Iulus who was his relative was legitimately connected to Julius Caesar the tyrant of the time. By doing this he legitimizes the historical backdrop of the people groups past, and they view the story in another light. The Aeneid would be politically fascinating to the normal Greek because of the Carthaginian wars. Indeed, even the notice of Carthage would have alarmed the crowd and they would be satisfied to see that the city was raised to the ground The issue of ethical quality, as I said is regularly investigated, and embodied in a character, Was Oedipus shameless? The Greek crowd would need to consider every option over this terrible inquiry. From one viewpoint he wasnt in light of the fact that he didnt recognize what he was doing, yet he was reviled and wrecked like an improper individual. This is the place the sad component lies, the crowd would feel for him and ask that they themselves dont endure a comparable destiny. Then again he was profane, which was exceptionally corrupt in Greek occasions, and this is an issue I will cover later in my exposition. Greek performance center anyway is loaded with tense and amazing minutes. During Oedipus the lord, Jocasta knew that Oedipus was going to discover his destiny. The scenes here were tense. The crowd would get behind it and voice their energy. The best writers when they put on the performance will remember emotional incongruity for the play. The entire Oedipus the ruler is based around this. The crowd mindful of his destiny watch him wriggle to his fate, since they know and can't stop it happening makes it significantly progressively terrible. At the point when Tiresias the prophet enters, Virgil makes numerous references to visual impairment and disarray, all reflect Oedipus state, as he doesnt know reality, however is profoundly unexpected on the grounds that the visually impaired cleric is the just a single mindful of the inevitable threat. As I have delineated the exact opposite thing a Greek crowd will do is to sit quietly through the play. They would mumble to one another, pant, here and there even cheer at the activity unfurling before them. The entire experience would be something other than an excursion; it is increasingly an ethical exercise, and a spot loaded with high feeling suggestive of an advanced church. The Greek crowd would be extremely strict individuals; the entire performance center experience was infact a demonstration of love, and it was respected the privilege and obligation of each resident to join in. In the performance center a sculpture of Dionysus was available adding to the strict hint. Having sets up the strict significance of the theater; it is reasonable how the crowd have issues of profound quality and regard to the Gods on their psyches. At the point when Oedipus is iconoclastic, this is considered profoundly corrupt as he had full command over his activities dissimilar to his different activities. Everybody was required to go to the theater, and even the individuals who couldnt manage the cost of it were paid for by the state. One can just envision yet the air was loaded with individuals from varying backgrounds. It is said there were around 14000 individuals in the oval molded field sat all round, this is practically similar to an advanced football coordinate. The enormous social significance of the venue can be seen and comprehended from this, individuals went there to impart thoughts to companions, see companions, and meet individuals. I can envision that in light of every one of these elements and assortment of individuals, the performance center was an in triguing spot. Individuals would clearly have various intentions in going however it is built up that it was something other than amusement.

Sunday, June 28, 2020

A Sound of the Thunder - Free Essay Example

The Intersting Essay â€Å"A Sound of The Thunder† is a short story written by Ray Bradbury. This is a story that sets place in the near future where time travel is possible. His story has a lot of adventure, fearful, and mysterious things that could entertain you to read this story. One thing though is that everything changes forever because something in the story that Ray Bradbury puts in is that if you go back on the past or future never change anything even if it’s a small thing because not only that would change but the whole world would. This story was mostly how the future technology works and how we can go anywhere basically. The problem with this is that one of the hunters named Mr. Eckels become scared and turns back and steps off the path, which they cannot break this one rule or else they will face the consequences when they arrive home. Well before all this really happens they first start talking about the presidential election and who might win for sure . A Sound of Thunder† is a somewhat suspenseful story because you’re not sure what is going to happen and you don’t know if things will be the same when they come back to the future from the past. This is the act that changed the whole story of what happened when he changes one thing in the past where he and his partner go kill T- Rex. When both of the hunters arrive home, Eckels notices something out that the sign for the program that takes you back in time has changed very differently. As in every word is spelled wrong. And the look that Eckels had wasn’t very pleasing, These hunters are going on a safari hunt that the government approved of to kill a T-Rex. He has now found out that he stepped on a butterfly and changed the phonics for the United States of America and also their president that they thought was going to win well guess what he didn’t win. The hunting expedition that took place in the dinosaurs time or as I can say Jurassic times it resulted that the whole world changed. But not only that everything in it to. So as you noticed when you go back in time is never good to change anything because it well likely change very bad. And what the author was explaining you is that if there is a time machine in the future yeah you can go back but make sure that there’s always rules in life and one of them is that you can change any of the past in you’re life. Secondly is that we all have are good things in life and bad things in life. So what this story carries to is like a future thing we expect in our life.

Saturday, May 30, 2020

Changes That The Cold War Have Brought - Free Essay Example

Beginning after World War II in 1947 and ending with the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, The Cold War was a war over true freedom and power. While the Soviet Union spread their communist ideas around, the United Sates fought on the side of capitalism. Give Me Liberty states Among other things, the Cold War was an ideological struggle, a battle, in a popular phrase of the 1950s, for the hearts and minds of people throughout the world. The Cold War was a major defining moment for the world but mostly the United States. Following the war, America became the superpower it intended to be. Yes, the United States did win the Cold War because the war and its link to freedom changed the way America looked at freedom. This redefinition of freedom caused a rise in the fight for human rights, the civil rights movement and new revolutions that reshaped America to be what it is today. The Cold War did not end in a fair fight but in the ending of the Soviet Union due to their financial inabilities. The United States was and still are against communism and ultimately the war was one of communism vs capitalism. America became a superpower over the other countries in the world, but the war woke up something in the American Society. During the Cold War, America was split between communists and capitalists. This split put emphasis on the freedom of speech and freedom of idea. During the 1950s, freedom became an inescapable theme of academic research, popular journalism, mass culture, and official pronouncements. (Foner). Both parties in the war claimed to be fighting for freedom and social justices. President Truman created the Truman Doctrine, persuaded democrats and republicans to support his policy, making it known that the United States was the leader of the free-world, and as the leader it is its job to support freedom-loving people. He believed communists were a threat to that. The Anticommunists Crusade began in America showing its divide. Anticommunist movies like The Red Menace and I Married a Communist were made, and movie writers were urged to eliminate the bad parts of American history to persuade America and other countries against communism. Capitalists questioning of Americans loyalty only made Americans speak out more. What do men know of loyalty who make a mockery of the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights? (Commager). With the Anticommunist Crusade happening, people were being threatened with losing their jobs and sent to prison for promoting communism or being believed to be spies through. President Truman launched a loyalty review system, requiring government employees to prove their patriotism. More people lost their jobs than those sent to prison, but most felt this was an act against the founding fathers. The House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) also managed to send what became to be called the Hollywood Ten and 200 others to jail for promoting communism in movies. The aftermath of World War II and the Four Freedoms raised the issue of human rights. Individuals were for the first time, being held accountable for violating human, many being Nazi officials. Violators were placed on trial and even sentenced to prison; some execution. In 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, drafted by Eleanor Roosevelt and her committee, was approved by the Un General Assembly. This doctrine was written to speak out for the rights that everyone deserved. These rights included freedom of speech, religious toleration, protection against arbitrary government, adequate standard of living and access to housing, education, and medical care. Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights stated All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and right. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Some may have felt this doctrine was an empty rhetoric but its principle that how a natio n treats its own citizens should be subject to outside evaluation became the bases of freedom. Blacks and other minorities were speaking out against the inequalities of man prior to the Civil War, but the increased talk of freedom and the rise in the fight for human rights during and after the war birthed a new voice. Prior to the approval of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the NAACP spoke out and filed a petition to the United Nations seeking an investigation into the racism within the United States, a clear violation of human rights. The United Nations did not follow through, but this petition was only the beginning. For decades blacks were the last to benefit from any of the progressive changes in America; if they benefitted at all. From slavery to segregation, blacks faced many facial discriminations. Blacks were given lower wage employment than unskilled workers, subpar access to education, and forced to live in packed ghettos that lacked many necessities for survival. Yet despite the apparent extra effort being made by the poorest districts, they are unable ev en to begin to make the richest districts in terms of the production of revenue. (Marshall). The Golden Age began after the ending of World War II and marked a time of economic expansion, stable prices, low unemployment rates, and a rise in the standard of living. Even southern living progressed from its years of being behind the North. With the Golden Age came higher incomes that brought the ability to afford better living which in turn began the creation of suburban neighborhoods, neighborhoods blacks were not allowed in. Suburbs like the Levittown Suburbs created by William and Alfred Levitt, refused to allow non-whites entry. Urban renewal programs that tore down poor neighborhoods to build retail centers, white-only middle-class housing and universities, displaced tons of residents. While the whites in those areas moved to the suburbs or into white-only housing complexes, blacks were forced to move to other already crowded ghettos or create new ones. Employment discrimination and exclusion from educational opportunities left blacks and other non-whites in unskilled jobs , unable to advance to a better standard of living. Following the end of World War II and throughout the Cold War, there was a civil rights upsurge. The NAACP and civil rights coalitions involving labor, religious groups and back organizations fought for big changes for the black communities all over the country, especially the South. Twenty percent of blacks in the South were registered to vote by 1952. There was also reported to be no lynchings that took place that year in the entire United States. In 1947, the Brooklyn Dodgers challenged the long-standing exclusion of blacks in major league baseball by adding Jackie Robison, who would decades later become a hall of famer, to their team. The success of Jackie Robinson lead to other teams adding black players and the soon demise of the Negro League. That same year, President Truman appointed a Commission on Civil Rights to issue To Secure These Rights, a publishing of the racial inequalities in America. This publishing called out the federal government and demanded they assume the responsibility of ending segregation and ensuring equal treatment in housing, employment, education and the criminal justice system. President Truman also made a great change for blacks when, in July of 1948, he issued an executive order to desegregate the United States Military, making it the largest institution in America to promote racial integration actively. Prominent black leaders like W.E.B Du Bois spoke out against the Civil War but many others and organizations like the NAACP felt that it was in the best interest of blacks to go along and speak out against communism. With the Truman administration actively behind civil rights, blacks were seeing a time of hope and prosperity but laws banning discrimination remained unenforced towards the end of Trumans presidency. The 1952 elections showed blacks how quickly their issues could become nonexistent when the democrats nominated a candidate who could c are less about civil rights. But this was not the end. The rise of what became known as the affluent society, changed American life with new opportunities for whites living in the expanding suburbs. Blacks were again left out, living in declining rural areas of the South and urban ghettos of the North. This prosperity for whites and the continued discrimination for blacks would become the inspiration for the civil rights movement that in turn redefined American freedom. Extreme acts of segregation in America birthed a voice in blacks like Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks and iconic moments in history like the Montgomery Bus Boycotts, that has changed the history of blacks all over and is continuing to change. With segregated public buildings, water fountains and buses, the urban ghettos they were forced to live in, low wages, and subpar schools and educations their children were receiving, blacks were becoming more and more agitated with the land of the free. The NAACP stood behind cases like Brown v. Board of Education, where black parents challenged the unfair school policies. The separate but equal doctrine adopted in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, has no place in the field of public education. (Brown v. Board of Education). Cases like this one paved the way for the desegregation of schools in America and are the reason why every child can receive the same education as any other child today. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black woman in Montgomery, Alabama, one of the most racist cities in America, made history when she refused to give up her seat after a long day of work, to a white person. During these times, it was the law for blacks to enter the bus via the back door, sit in the back and give their seats to white riders if there were none left. On this day, Rosa Parks started a 381-day movement. For those 381 days, blacks refused to use public transportation, facing loads of harassment and violence. In November of 1956, the Supreme Court ruled segregation in public transportation unconstitutional, ending the boycott and the segregation of buses. Blacks in the South began to stand up and speak out against segregation more and more. Nonviolent protests following the lead of leaders like Dr. King and his Southern Christian Leadership Conference, began to pop up all over, demanding change. Young activists in Raleigh, North Carolina formed the Student Nonviolent Coord inating Committee (SNCC) in 1960. Black and even some white college students started sit-ins in segregated dinners and in 1961, the Freedom Rides was launched, and integrated groups of college students traveled through the deep south forming sit-ins, protesting the segregation. They were harassed by angry mobs with no police protection. The civil rights movement brought a strength and the young and old who were tired and ready for a change. On August 28, 1963, weeks before the Birmingham church bombing that killed innocent black girls, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. lead the March on Washington and gave his famous I have a Dream speech. Because of these brave induvial, those who followed them and the organizing of protests, the lives of blacks and other minorities drastically changed for the better. The Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964, prohibiting discrimination in employment, institutions like hospitals and schools and privately-owned public places like restaurants, hotels and theaters. Dr. King launched a voting ri ghts campaign in 1965 that lead to the passing of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the 24th Amendment which outlawed poll tax and gave blacks a fair chance at voting. The ending of World War II and the starting of the Cold War also woke up a voice in white Americans all over. Not only were whites facing losing their jobs and even Hollywood fame for even being accused of being disloyal, they were becoming fed up with the government and the way everyone was being treated. The 1950s birthed a new form of thinking for whites in America. A group of thinkers started the task of making changes to conservatism and reclaiming the idea of freedom from liberals. They strongly opposed the idea of a strong national government. We as young conservatives, believe: That foremost among the transcendent values the individuals use of his God-given free will whence derives his right to be free from the restrictions of arbitrary force; (The Sharon Statement, Young Americans for Freedom). Freedom to them, meant individual autonomy, limited government, and unregulated capitalism. Insisting that toleration of difference was not offering any substitute in the search of ab solute truth, believed the Free World needed to arm itself morally and intellectually. Writers and socialist started speaking out in their work, concerned with what America really viewed as freedom. An insert by Life magazine suggested that American freedom could be in more danger from the nonuse of it than the threat of communism. The 1950s saw of time where white youth were known as rebels without a cause. All around white teens were forming gangs and wearing leather jackets, dancing to rock n roll and sexual music. People like the poet group, the Beats rejected the materialism of the suburbs and celebrated impulsive action, pleasure through drugs and sexual experimentation. This was only the beginning. By the 1960s, young white Americans were standing up against the government and many were standing with blacks during the civil rights movement. Many did not understand the rise of protesting white college students that began to appear. This sparked what came to be called, the New Left. The New Left was inspired by the civil rights movement, especially the sit-ins. Young whites felt it was their duty to stand up for what was right and fight for true freedom in the world. They mostly stood up against poverty and the war. Books like The Other America and The Death and Life of Great American Cities showed the sid e of America they didnt glorify and criticized urban renewal and the destruction of neighborhoods to build highways. Groups like Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) formed in the 60s as a voice for the people. Although feminism seemed to disappear after the baby boom, women once again arose and spoke out. The reawakening of the feminist movement began with the publication of Betty Friedans 1963 The Feminine Mystique. Her book emphasized that women are more than being wives and mothers and the world needed to get with the program. Women started waking up again and fighting for their rights. In 1963, the Equal Pay Act was passed, ending sex discrimination between men and women who work the same jobs. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 also prohibited discrimination based on sex. The National Organization for Women (NOW) was formed in 1966, demanding equal opportunities for women in all walks of life. Young women were starting to embrace the civil rights movement and ideologies of organizations like the SDS and SNCC. By 1967, conscious groups were being formed by women all over that focused on their dissatisfaction with the state of women in America. By appealing to conscience and standing on the m oral nature of human existence, nonviolence nurtures the atmosphere in which reconciliation and justice become actual possibilities. (Committee). Protests like the one at the 1968 Miss America beauty pageant, gave a new voice for what has come to be known as new feminism. The Cold War may have been a war of capitalism vs. communism, but it also brought about a change in the world that we see today. America saw a major change that would only continue to make it a superpower. Although it ended because of the financial inabilities of the Soviet Union, the United States still won the Cold War because it faced a change that birthed a new meaning to freedom. This new meaning of freedom sparked a voice in Americans that changed human rights, created the civil rights movement, and woke up a voice in young white men and women that soon changed the meaning of equality for all. Human rights played a prominent role in world affairs after the Cold War and continues to play such role today.