Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Myth of Exodus Essay -- Holy Bible Essays

The Myth of Exodus There are many themes running through the Old Testament myth of Exodus – slavery, rescue and redemption, guidance, commandments on how to live, the creation of a nation, and God’s power over other gods. In this paper I will explore what appears to be the chief reasoning behind the creation of the Exodus myth – the explanation of the creation of a monotheistic religion and the similarities of the Exodus myth to the ancient myths, as well as how one should approach the reading of the myth. First of all, we need to understand what a myth is. William Bascom says in his essay, â€Å"The Forms of Folklore: Prose Narratives†, â€Å"Myths are prose narratives which, in the society in which they are told, are considered to be truthful accounts of what happened in the remote past† (Dundes 9). Trying to prove the elements in the myth as factual are contrary to the very existence of the myth. In reading Old Testament Bible myth, the question of divine inspiration versus historical truth is often debated. â€Å"A myth makes a valid statement about the origins of the world, of society and of its institutions, about the gods and their relationship with mortals, in short, about everything on which human existence depends† (Graf 3). Further, the context in which the myth was written must be taken into account when reading the story. Bronislaw Malinowski in his essay â€Å"The Role of Myth in Life† says that â€Å"The text, of course, is extremely important, but without the context it remains lifeless† (Malinowski 201). The context that needs to be addressed when reading the myth are the cultural and sociological components that surround a mythological text. This context, consisting of the understanding of the culture in which the myth exte... of proper behavior for the new society that has been liberated from slavery. Within the context of history, the myth offers future generations a glimpse of a new religions beginnings. As the new code of laws is set into place, a new and more powerful god emerges – a god of great strength, a god that supersedes all other gods, one god above all others. Works Cited Coogan, Michael D., ed. The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 3rd Ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Dundes, Alan, ed. Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth. LA: University of California Press, 1984. Graf, Fritz. Greek Mythology: An Introduction. Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. Segal, Robert A. Theorizing About Myth. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

An explanation of the strain and cultural criminology theories and the criminal elements Essay

The fast-changing society is demanding improvement of the existing legal frameworks each and every day. Indisputably, this is considerably challenging the decisions made by policymakers and more especially the judiciary sector. The challenge is more intensified by the way we define the defendant, victim, and penalty imposed for any crime committed. The underlying problem is that there exist various cultural norms and natural law; which significantly differ with constitutional requirements. In other words, legal procedures are not sufficient in providing criminal facts that can help us clearly understand the criminal elements mentioned above. Nevertheless, many scholars in the field of criminology such as Robert K. Merton and Keith Hayward now believes we can rely upon the strain and cultural criminology theories. Inarguably, the relationship existing between the two theories goes beyond our expectation, more especially when analyzing any criminology case. In fact, many people have be en convinced it would be appropriate if policymakers integrate some of the facts unrevealed by these theories when making or amending the criminal laws. The paper offers a detailed explanation of the two methods and more importantly, how they can be applied in the criminal case study of Mr. Heffernan convicted of the crime of cultivating cannabis plant which is an illegal plant and supply of the same plant products as drugs to the community. The case took place in the district court, New South Wales and has since sounded the trumpet over how the proceedings were unraveling the case that Mr. Heffernan was convicted with. This will be discussed along with the criminal elements and criminal facts which were evident in the case. Strain theory argues that when an individual is pressurized by the community or by the factors in his environment, the pressure overwhelms him which forces him to satisfy his cultural inequalities and material requirements by engaging in crime as stated by (Agnew, 2001, p319) The crime, in this case, is a subject to the strain that oversees a high level of pressure that the victim cannot bear the burden of. There are numerous forms of stress best explained by GST. The diverse forms of strain do not exclude financial requirements. The fear may force one into committing a crime that he never intended. Merton in his strain theory argues that it is only a small margin of the people who face stress end up committing crimes. The group that is involved in offenses that emanate from the strain from external forces is seen as deviant since they view the world as if there exists no other solution for their problems. Morten argues that the group is then forced into crime despite the fact that it is against their will. Cultural criminology theory, however, presents a different view of such an instance. It argues that the individual rather enjoys the self-fulfilling feeling that comes about with being involved in criminal activity. The theory explains that when the personal gains the social requirements that he or she could have otherwise not achieved legally, they are left with a sense of insecurity while others feel self-fulfilled and okay when they have their requirements fulfilled. According to Presdee, (2003) Cultural criminology is distinctively conjectural, procedural and domineering slant that places criminals, cases and the control mechanism in the context of culture Linking the theory to the case of Heffernan to both methods, strain theory argues that the convicted was involved in the crime due to the strain that he was facing.   It is evident that he as the criminal was suffering from an extraordinarily high degree of anxiety that he could have otherwise avoided if he had a well-paying job if the parents were not sick if his wife had no medical complications and if he was not unwell. On the other hand, cultural criminology argues that the occurrence of the crime was purely projected from the nature of the community the offender comes from as stated by (Ferrell et al., 2004). This, therefore, makes the community to be viewed as the actual cause of the crime due because the factors that led to the offense against which Mr. Heffernan is convicted are subject to the same community. The offender presents various evidence to the jury that when analyzed helped, in coming up with a valid judgment. The case presented states that the offender is a vict im of the drugs misuse and trafficking laws which inhibit one from growing plants that are otherwise termed as illegal. It also prohibits the supply of the same to the community. Mr. Heffernan was caught with 32kgs of cannabis leaves that are more than the monetary amount which is said to be 25 kilograms as stated by (Cerdà ¡ et al., 2012, p22). He had surpassed a commercial margin which otherwise inevitably presents the idea of the sale of the same to the community. He was rather much more cooperative by taking the police to the ranch where he grew the plant. The evidence was based on the idea that the man was found in the hold of a few bags of the leaves, showed where he grew the leaves and accepted to be the only person involved with the same. Evidence presented before the jury was photographs of these bags of leaves and the plant as well as the $1400 that was in his custody. The offender argues that he has been working on a farm for over 33 years and in his work life, he has been a victim of many injuries which have presented themselves as a limiting factor to the type and the amount of work that he can be engaged in evidenced by the numerous medical rec ords submitted to the coat regarding the same. His wife’s letter also backs up the issue since its content explains how those injuries have impacted negatively on their lives and the lives of their kids. This is seen as one of the strains that the convicted is battling with that could have otherwise presented to be the cause of the crime as stated by (Agnew, 2007, p319). The offender also claims that his family has been haunted by a trail of illnesses beginning with his mother who is suffering from breast cancer and osteoarthritis. His father is also suffering from a heart disease and osteoarthritis. He has diabetes and has been needing insulin to survive bearing in mind that his wife also has health conditions that make Mr. Heffernan the only breadwinner. This trail of illnesses presents themselves as another form of strain that led to the unusual character of the victim. An aggregate of such issues may result in so much pressure that needs a person with an unyielding personality to handle. While this is seen as strain, the cultural criminology finds it as social factors which when linked caused the occurrence of the crime. This presents the social and the crime as distinctively of a parallel nature. He is also faced with some more pressure of taking care of their 14 years high school kid and the younger one in primary education. The family had just married a year ago which rather increases the commitments of the breadwinner. The offender’s family has been selling their property which was around $80000 and has now depreciated to around $60000. His house is also being mortgaged at $70000, and this would render the family homeless. He argues that it is due to this pressure that he decided to engage in this criminal act. The jury well understands the pressure that the offender is facing pointing out that an offender is a man of substance whose life has not been presented as a threat to any criminal record. The only criminal record that exists seems baseless to make an overall conclusion that the man is a criminal. Evidence presented by  Ã‚   Mr. P. Harper, the offender’s defendant. The evidence is full of commendations for the man. This evidence is based on the peopl e who know Mr. Heffernan stating that the individual’s behaviors have been outstanding, something that even the judge recognizes by saying that Mr. Heffernan is a man of excellent character in the argument number 11 0f the case. The case presents itself from a criminal act that has been catalyzed by the excessive pressure faced by the convicted by strain theory which recognizes the existence of such anomalies in individual’s life when faced with extreme pressure. The issue that revolves around the life of the convicted is a monetary issue. Money, in this case, could have been the solution to all his problems since if he had enough of it, he could have saved his parent’s property from being sold. He could also have been able to take care of his sick relatives, his sick wife and cater for the life of the kids who are still in school. He could also have not gone to the extent of growing and distributing cannabis which is the state’s laws and the drugs misuse and trafficking act of 1985. The judge recognizes all the burdens that the convicted has to bear in his life considering that he is 51 and has to take care of all this pressure. About GST and the reasons that the convicted gives regardi ng the case he has been charged with, there were a few goals that the convicted was unable to meet. His desire to cater to his family and his parents and the desires to have a well-paying job dragged him to committing this crime. The unfolding circumstances are in line with the arguments of strain theory. Cultural criminology which seeks to understand crime in the context of culture is inevitably applicable in the case. The crime was subject to subcultures which revolve around what the community around the offender does and the rules that exist governing this particular crime. The rules governing drug and substance abuse have given guidelines on the judgment against the convicted depending on the nature and the extent of the committed crime. In a nutshell, it is the society that leads to the development of the rules that exist against the offenses revolving around drug and substance abuse. The occupation of the offender and the circumstances revolving around his life which led him to commit the crime are part and puzzle of the culture and community. As strain theory argues that the crime that was committed was subjected to the pressure of the life of the convicted, cultural criminology sees it as just another culture of various subcultures that may have led to the crime. Growing of Cannabis and distributing it to the public is considered to be a crime since there are rules against it as stated by (Reuter, 2010). If the drug had to be distributed to the community, the general impact on the youths would have been dire since this is the most likely group to the issue. As such, the convicted is seen to have been an agent of community destruction since he was a man of age and a parent. He is seen to have not minded about the lives of the other kids in the community and committed the crime for monetary gain. The strain theory comes about to argue that withstanding the pressure of the life the convicted was facing needed him to have looked for an alternative way of getting money. The convicted argues that he had complications regarding his health and that he was nearing his retirement age. He was forced to grow cannabis after ordering seeds from the United Kingdom which he later planted. It is the same marijuana that was harvested and packed before it was confiscated by the police. The theory gives out a clear argument that the man had small means of supporting his family using whatever he was gaining. This case is brought out clearly by the fact that the convicted had no previous criminal records and that his life was clean therefore it is due to what seemed to be a sort of excessive pressure that led him to commit the crime. On the other hand, cultural criminology makes the mere mention of cannabis a criminal activity where any activity that is associated with the drug has been criminalized. With the building of a belief that this activity is already a crime, the theory argues that rules that forbid it are developed ensuring that those who are associated wi th cannabis are taken into justice without considering any argument or reasons behind the act. With all the associated facts and evidence having been presented, Mr. Harper claims that the case on which the offender has been convicted with is not a drug trafficking case since it was planned as a one-time business. The pressure under which the convicted was suffering from forcing him to establish a cannabis plantation which he prepared to sell only once and increase the value of the ranch. This was one of the strain factors that made him respond to the pressure by involving himself in the crime. The judge, however, argues that it is irresponsible for a man with a family to release cannabis of a monetary amount to the society which would impact negatively on the lives of the youths as stated by (Lowinson, 2005). The judgment against both crimes was supposed to be ten years for the crime of growing cannabis and 15 years for trafficking.   The judge at the end of it all understands the pressure that the convicted was facing and gives him a sentence of two and a half years. The strain theory gives out a sense of reasoning and weighing of matters such that the degree of pressure was duly recognized by the jury. The cultural criminology theory, on the other hand, views the crime generally as breaking the law that originated from the same issue. It argues that the moral standards of the community which harbors the roots of the law have declined. The argument here is that the community from which the convicted comes from and the crime that was committed is viewed as one and the same thing. With the weak empirical evidence in support of the strain theory, the presented arguments were not sufficient to ensure that the convicted was set free. Rather it just explains the problems that the law class individuals are facing without taking into consideration of the larger picture of the community and the white collar crimes as stated by (Aseltine et al., 2000, p256). Crimes in such levels are the ones that decapitate the community. The theory deals with individuals rather than the community on which the crime and the criminals thrive. These issues are well explained by the cultural criminology theory which does not only just present its arguments from a particular line or level of crimes. It digs into every crime be it white collar or any other sort of the offense. Conclusion The case presented above shows how strain can cause various crimes. The arguments put forward to show that some forms of tension can be so haunting such that the victim ends up being involved illegal activities that end up bringing peace to the life of the victim. The judge, however, takes into consideration the strain that the convicted is facing, and from this, a valid judgment is given. As the strain theory views this crime as a result of pressure, the cultural criminology sees it as the larger picture of the nature of the community from which the convicted comes from. However, the theories try to explain the kind of judgment that is passed as not usual from the rest since consideration depending on the prevailing circumstance is taken note of. Reference Agnew, R., 2001. Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 38(4), pp.319-361. Agnew, R., 2007. Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Aseltine Jr, R.H., Gore, S. and Gordon, J., 2000. Life stress, anger and anxiety, and delinquency: An empirical test of general strain theory. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, pp.256-275. Cerdà ¡, M., Wall, M., Keyes, K.M., Galea, S. and Hasin, D., 2012. Medical marijuana laws in 50 state: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Drug and alcohol dependence, 120(1), pp.22-27. Chan, J.B., 1997. Changing police culture: Policing in a Multicultural Society. Cambridge University Press. Ferrell, J., Hayward, K., Morrison, W., and Presdee, M. eds., 2004. Cultural criminology unleashed. Routledge. Lowinson, J.H. ed., 2005. Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Mazerolle, P., Piquero, A.R. and Capowich, G.E., 2003. Examining the links between strain, situational and dispositional anger, and crime further specifying and testing general strain theory. Youth & Society, 35(2), pp.131-157. Presdee, M., 2003. Cultural criminology and the carnival of crime. Routledge. Reuter, P., 2010. Marijuana legalization: what can be learned from other countries. Baltimore, MD: RAND Drug Policy Research Center, University of Maryland.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Analysis Of George Lloyd s The Iliad And The Odyssey

Composer George Lloyd once stated that â€Å"The ancient Greeks have a knack of wrapping truths in myths.† These myths, ranging from the stories of the gods themselves to epic poems like Homer’s The Iliad and The Odyssey, teach the ancient Greeks lessons on different morals and how to live. Lessons of loyalty to loved ones, humans cause extra suffering to themselves, and sacrificing for an end goal can be found within The Odyssey. Loyalty to loved ones is heavily stressed as a lesson within The Odyssey. While Odysseus was lost at sea while trying to get home from the Trojan War, he is given multiple temptations to prevent him from returning to his family in Ithaca. As Odysseus is kept on the island of Ogygia by the nymph Calypso, her temptations are revealed as Hermes appears to command her to release him: â€Å"And I welcomed him warmly, cherished him, even vowed/to make the man immortal, ageless, all his days†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (5.151-152). Despite being offered immortali ty if he stays, he declines as Odysseus only had returning to his family back in Ithaca on his mind. Odysseus runs into more enticement after landing in Phaeacia after leaving Calypso and being brought to the castle by Nausicaa, the princess of the nation. Her father, Alcinous, begins to offer his daughter to tempt him into staying: â€Å"I’d give you a house/and great wealth—if you chose to stay, that is† (7.359-7.360). While Odysseus is dealing with temptations away from home, his wife Penelope has her own plans for dealing with the

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Lorraine Functional Life Skills Teacher Completed Basc IIi...

Brittany Functional Life Skills teacher completed BASC III scales. The BASC III measures a student’s emotional, behavioral, and adaptive functioning. The score that is used for the scale is the T-score. The T-score indicates the distance of a score from the norm group mean. The BASC II has a mean T-score of 50 with a standard deviation of 10. Scores ranging 60 to 69 are considered to be in the At-Risk range. The T-scores that are 70+ are in the Clinically Significant range. On the Adaptive Scale portion of the BASC II, the T-Scores that are from 30 to 39 are in the At-Risk range. The T-scores that are below 29 are in the Clinically Significant range. There were three categories that Brittany’s teacher rated her in the Clinically Significant range (Hyperactivity, Aggression, and Depression). Brittany s T score on Hyperactivity is 84. Brittany s teacher reports that she engages in a high number of behaviors that are adversely affecting other children in the classroom. Brittany is reported as often being restless and overactive, and she may have difficulty controlling her impulses. Brittany s T score on Aggression is 82. Brittany s teacher reports that Brittany displays a high number of aggressive behaviors and may be reported as being argumentative, defiant, and/or threatening to others. Brittany s T score on Depression is 79. Brittany s teacher reports that Brittany is withdrawn, pessimistic, and/or sad. There were six areas that Brittany’s teacher rated

Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Great Day Of My Life - 1395 Words

Roosevelt once described his service in the Spanish-American War as â€Å"the great day of my life† ( Roosevelt’s incredible leadership ability was first put to the test and demonstrated during the Battle of Las Guasimas as he braved a hail of enemy fire from horseback and led his men to a flanking position that broke the back of the Spanish forces and sent them into retreat. Following this action, Col. Wood was promoted to General, and Roosevelt was promoted to Colonel, giving him command of the 1st Volunteer Cavalry Regiment. Las Guasimas was a defining moment in Roosevelt’s life; however the greatest of these moments was no doubt at the Battle of San Juan Heights. Pinned down by heavy enemy fire, Roosevelt mounted his horse and cried â€Å"Are you afraid to stand up, when I am on horseback,† ( as he charged headlong into the fire and up Kettle Hill. After taking the first hill, Roosevelt saw that the American effort o n the adjacent San Juan Hill was faltering, and he once again rallied his men for one final assault on the Spanish position. The following description of Roosevelt’s action is from his Medal of Honor citation, which was awarded posthumously in 2001. Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt distinguished himself by acts of bravery on 1 July 1898, near Santiago de Cuba, Republic of Cuba, while leading a daring charge up San Juan Hill. Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt, in total disregard for his personal safety, and accompanied by only fourShow MoreRelatedNarrative Essay About Heartbroken1076 Words   |  5 Pages Heartbroken As a young child, my great grandparents were my world. They cared for me, they took me places, they showed me love and affection and mostly they just admired my existence. 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Thursday, December 12, 2019

News Article on Bally Total Fitness Can use for a Essay Example For Students

News Article on Bally Total Fitness Can use for a Essay Public Relations class Bally Total Fitness is the largest and only nationwide commercial operator of fitness centers in the United States, with approximately 4 million members and 320 locations in 27 states and Canada. There are currently 5 in the Baltimore area. (Bally p.1) Bally Total Fitness claim is to be committed to offering its members the best resources to help them achieve their personal fitness and health goals at an affordable price. Their diversity is apparent in the multitude of features they offer. Bally clubs offer swimming pools, racquetball, aerobics, indoor tracks, extensive cardiovascular and free weight machinery and daycare. In such a large corporation of both members and staff, Bally Total Fitness has regimented methods in which they handle public relation situations. The first of which are media relations. Media relations entail any situation in which the media interacts with any of the clubs. A good example of this is when a club or staff member is injured in a facility and the print or television media wants to do a story on the accident. In this scenario the club staff are not allowed to interact with the media until a media release form is given. This means no video or still pictures are allowed to be taken inside the club, nor is the staff allowed to comment about the incident until this procedure is satisfied. The director of public relations for Bally Total Fitness is Mr. Jack Sells. He is the person responsible for initiating the media release form, which he would then fax to the club for a media event. Mr. Sells must approve all press releases before they are released. Mr. Sells works out of Chicago, Illinois where Bally Total Fitness central corporate office is located. From a public relations perspective, Mr. Sells identifies himself as the expert prescriber in PR for Bally total fitness. He operates as a consultant to define the problem, suggest options, and oversee implementation. But there are two men underneath Mr. Sells. Frank Rizzo who is the regional supervisor, and Sol Rosenberg who is the club manager. Frank Rizzo would be defined as the problem solver process facilitator. He partners with senior management to identify and solve problems and Sol Rosenberg, would be the communication facilitator, because he is the person on the periphery between the organization and the environment who keeps two way communication going. During the interview Mr. Sells informed me about some of the campaigns that he is working on now and some campaigns Ballys has done in the past. Right now Bally Total Fitness has a community-healing fund for Littleton, Colorado. For each donation given Ballys will provide matching funds for a portion of the donation collected. This campaign is part of Ballys stronger communitys campaign in which they support community service organizations in the communities in which they operate. According to Mr. Sells, in the past year Ballys stronger communitys campaign has contributed more than 6 million dollars in cash and donations to inner city schools, boys and girls clubs, and police and fire departments. Bally Total Fitness will also be the title sponsor of the 12 city USTS triathlon series. Triathlons are a great test of personal fitness and that is why we are proud to be the prime sponsor of the event, said Mr. Sells. Another integral part of Ballys success is advertising. I conducted an interview with the sales manager at the Greenbelt Ballys location, Simon Says. Mr. Says attributes much of Ballys success to the clever advertising promotions that Ballys uses. Mr. Says claims Ballys gimmick is to get everyone to walk in through the door in order to see the product, regardless of age, gender, or financial demeanor. Bally Total Fitness saturates the television, radio, and newspaper markets with their advertising. These frequently run ads commonly offer low down payments to start a membership, such as $O to start, $1 to start, or $5 to start. It is this approach that is appealing to potential health club members. It is estimated that every incoming phone call regarding membership pricing costs the Company $100. .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d , .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d .postImageUrl , .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d , .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d:hover , .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d:visited , .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d:active { border:0!important; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d:active , .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u35afc48aba3c7aa742ac9f2a47fdb06d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Adam Smith Essay On Language00 to generate because of the costly spending on advertising, claims Mr. .

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Essay Deepth Perception free essay sample

An experimental design was used in which a sample of 20 participants were asked to judge which of two identical pens was closer to them on a 10cm depth scale. The independent variable was whether participants were in the binocular or monocular condition and the dependent variable was the accuracy of depth perceptions. Correct or incorrect responses were recorded on a response scale. The results showed that participants in the binocular condition produced more correct answers than participants in the monocular condition, supporting the experimental hypothesis. This corresponds with previous research. The Effect of Monocular and Binocular Vision when Judging Depth Perception Depth perception in relation to physical stimuli comes from the study of psychophysics. Depth perception is the ability to see the world in three-dimensions and the distances of objects. The retina receives information in only two-dimensions, but the brain elicits information about depth so that we can perceive the world in three dimensions. It does this via visual and oculomotor cues. Some depth cues only require input from one eye; these are known as monocular depth cues. They include motion parallax; when moving forward, the way objects move past you can inform you as to how far they are, aerial perspective; objects become clearer the closer they are to you, relative size; if there are two objects that you know are the same size, the smaller one must be further away, interposition; if one object overlaps another you can judge which object is closer to you, texture gradient; the texture of an object is more difficult to see the further away it is, elevation; objects appearing higher in the visual field are perceived as being further away, shading, shadows of objects can help the brain determine how far away they are, and linear perspective; the perception that parallel lines angle towards each other as they recede into the distance (Schiffman, 1997). However, some sources of information require input from both eyes; this is known as binocular depth cues. These include binocular disparity; using two images of the same scene from slightly different angl es. And convergence; the movement of eyes turning inwards, depending on the distance of the object your observing. The ability to perceive relative depth using binocular vision is known as stereopsis. Oculomotor cues derive from the act of muscular contraction, either from the focus of the lens or the position of the eyes (Sekuler, 2002). Oculomotor cues include convergence and accommodation. Accommodation is the process of your eyes adjusting to keep an object in clear focus. But why do humans have two eyes? Some animals, such as herbivores, have eyes on the side of their head. Evolutionary psychologists would argue that this enables them to notice the approach of predators and ensure survival. However, most predators need binocular vision and therefore have eyes in the front of their head enabling them to judge distances when looking for pray. Previous research has found that binocular depth cues provide more accurate information about depth. Mckee and Taylor (2010) investigated monocular and binocular depth cues when judging a pair of metal rods in a natural setting either in isolation, or surrounded by other objects, and found that the presence of objects and textures improved monocular judgements; however, binocular judgments were still more accurate. Similarly, Barlow, Blakemore and Pettigrew (1967) investigated monocular and binocular vision by recording the action potentials of neurons in the primary visual cortex of cats, and found that the retinal images of an object must be correctly placed in both eyes to elicit the most accurate response, as opposed to one eye. However, it could be said that the experiment may not be generalizable to humans as it was conducted on cats. Although many studies show support that binocular vision is more accurate in judging depth than monocular vision, some studies show support for how monocular judgements are just as important. Bruno and Cutting (1967) investigated monocular depth cues; relative size, elevation, interposition, and motion parallax, on computer generated stimuli. The results showed that perceivers use monocular depth cues to judge relative depth, and the more cues there are, the more depth is revealed. The findings from this study illustrate the importance of monocular depth cues, however, computer generated stimuli cannot generalise to real world stimuli. Based on previous research, this experiment aimed to investigate the effect of binocular vision and monocular vision when judging which of two objects is closer in humans and in real life objects. The current study had one hypothesis: two eyes would be better than one eye when judging depth perception. Method Design The study was an experiment. It used a between participants design. Participants were allocated to one of two conditions, monocular vision or binocular vision. The independent variable was whether participants used monocular or binocular vision to judge the depth of the objects and the dependent variable was the accuracy of depth perceptions. Participants The participants included an opportunistic sample of students from Southampton Solent University and friends and family of the experimenters. Participants were recruited on an opt in basis and were all over 18 years of age. 20 participants were recruited. Materials The researchers completed an ethics form (appendix A) before the study. The participants were given an information sheet (appendix B), including brief and consent, and a debrief (appendix C), which they received after completing the experiment. A 10cm depth scale (appendix D) with a gap of 1cm was used and results were recorded on a response scale (appendix E) which consisted of correct or incorrect responses from each participant for each trial. The objects used consisted of two identical pens. Procedure Participants were given an information sheet, briefing them on the experiment, and asked to sign their consent. The experimenter then read the standardised instructions to the participant. Participants were assigned to one of two conditions; monocular vision and binocular vision. Each participant was asked to judge which of two objects was closer to them from at a 2m distance. The objects consisted of two identical pens which were placed on the 10cm depth scale. Psychophysical techniques used included Just Noticeable Difference (JND) and the stimuli were kept constant. The order of trails was randomised. The experiment was counterbalanced with half of participants using their left eye, and half using their right eye in the monocular condition. Results were recorded on a response scale which consisted of correct or incorrect responses from each participant for each trial. This is known as a 2 adjustment forced choice procedure (2AFC). After the experiment, participants were debriefed and explained the aims and hypothesis of the study and inviting questions. Ethical Considerations An ethics form was completed and approved before the experiment took place. Participants were briefed on the experiment, given a consent form and then debriefed after the experiment. Participants’ right to withdraw from the study was indicated on the information sheet, as well as being reminded verbally by the experimenters. All participants were recruited on an opt in basis. No names or participant data were collected. Responses were therefore anonymous. Results Hypothesis: two eyes are better than one when judging depth perception. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for each experimental condition: monocular vision and binocular vision, as shown in table 1. Raw data can be seen in appendix G. Table 1 The mean and standard deviation according to each experimental condition Experimental Condition| Mean| Standard Deviation| Monocular vision| 15. 70| 2. 58| Binocular vision| 19. 30| 1. 34| Table 1 shows that the mean (19. 30) for binocular vision was higher than the mean (15. 70) for monocular vision. This indicates that participants in the binocular vision experimental condition had more correct answers than participants in the monocular vision condition, supporting the hypothesis. Calculations from the output can be seen in appendix F. Figure 1. Mean total scores of correct answers. Figure 1 shows that the mean total scores of correct answers were higher for participants in the binocular condition than participants in the monocular condition. Having used a between participants design, an unrelated t test was conducted to test the directional hypothesis. The output from the calculations can be seen in Appendix F. The results were as follows: t(18) = -3. 912, the significance of the t value equals . 0005, meaning that plt;0. 01. This means that the results were significant to 1% and thus participants in the binocular condition had significantly more correct answers than participants in the monocular condition. Discussion The results of this experiment do support the predicted hypothesis that two eyes are better than one when judging depth perception. Participants in the binocular condition had more correct answers and were able to judge which of the two pens was closest to them than participants in the monocular condition. These findings can be explained by binocular disparity; each eye has a slightly different perspective of the same image, due to the eyes being slightly separated. The brain then combines information from the two eyes into one three-dimensional image, and obscures the differences (Sekuler, 2002). The brain uses binocular disparity to get depth information and judge the distances of objects. Figure 2. A diagram of binocular disparity. Figure 2 demonstrates how the left and right eyes have different visual views of the same image. If the object is far away, the disparity of that image will be small, if the object is close, the disparity will be large. Therefore, participants in the binocular condition used the images in their left and right eye, to determine the disparity of the objects and thus judge which pen was closest to them. In the monocular condition, the use of Just Noticeable Difference (JND), the smallest change in the physical stimuli, made it more difficult for participants to use the monocular depth cue of interposition to judge which pen was closest to them. The closer the objects were to each other (e. g. 5 and 6 on the depth scale), the harder it was for participants to judge which one was closest to them. This is because when the objects were further apart from each other on the depth scale, one would overlap or block the other, and the fully exposed object was perceived as being closer to the participant. However, when the objects were closer to each other, neither object concealed the other and the ability to use interposition was eliminated, therefore producing incorrect responses. One possible limitation of this study is that it used a between participants design. This may have reduced the validity of the study as participants may have had different visual abilities. For example, people with ocular conditions, such as amblyopia, have poor stereo vision and thus perform worse in depth discriminations (Thompson amp; Nawrot, 1998). This may have confounded the results and therefore further research should use a within participants design testing the same participants in both conditions to see if the findings are consistent and if different visual capabilities affect the ability to perceive depth. Furthermore, it could be said that judging which of two pens is closer to you in experimental conditions with high control may not generalise to real live situations. It can be concluded that binocular vision is better than monocular vision when making depth perceptions. It may be valid to conclude that the results from this study are only valid within the context it was conducted and that further research should look into people with visual impairments to see if their depth perceptions are affected. References Schiffman, H. R. (1997). Sensation and Perception: an Integrated Approach. (pp. 215-227). New York: Wiley Sekuler, R (2002).